Magnetism, called orbital ferromagnetism, could prove useful for certain applications, such as quantum computing say Stanford researchers.

“Sometimes the best discoveries happen when scientists least expect it. While trying to replicate another team’s finding, Stanford physicists recently stumbled upon a novel form of magnetism, predicted but never seen before, that is generated when two honeycomb-shaped lattices of carbon are carefully stacked and rotated to a special angle.
The authors suggest the magnetism, called orbital ferromagnetism, could prove useful for certain applications, such as quantum computing. The group describes their finding in the July 25 issue of the journal Science.
“We were not aiming for magnetism. We found what may be the most exciting thing in my career to date through partially targeted and partially accidental exploration,” said study leader David Goldhaber-Gordon, a professor of physics at Stanford’s School of Humanities and Sciences. “Our discovery shows that the most interesting things turn out to be surprises sometimes.”
The Stanford researchers inadvertently made their discovery while trying to reproduce a finding that was sending shockwaves through the physics community. In early 2018, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero’s group at MIT announced that they had coaxed a stack of two subtly misaligned sheets of carbon atoms—twisted bilayer graphene—to conduct electricity without resistance, a property known as superconductivity.
The discovery was a stunning confirmation of a nearly decade-old prediction that graphene sheets rotated to a very particular angle should exhibit interesting phenomena.
When stacked and twisted, graphene forms a superlattice with a repeating interference, or moiré, pattern. “It’s like when you play two musical tones that are slightly different frequencies,” Goldhaber-Gordon said. “You’ll get a beat between the two that’s related to the difference between their frequencies. That’s similar to what you get if you stack two lattices atop each other and twist them so they’re not perfectly aligned….”
“Our magnetic bilayer graphene can be switched on with very low power and can be read electronically very easily,” Goldhaber-Gordon said. “The fact that there’s not a large magnetic field extending outward from the material means you can pack magnetic bits very close together without worrying about interference.”
Goldhaber-Gordon’s lab isn’t done exploring twisted bilayer graphene yet. The group plans to make more samples using recently improved fabrication techniques in order to further investigate the orbital magnetism.”

Read full story Physicists discover new quantum trick for graphene: magnetism

Source: Physics dot Org by Ker Than, Stanford University
Image: From left to right, Aaron Sharpe, David Goldhaber-Gordon and Eli Fox using their home-built transfer stage to assemble graphene heterostructures. Credit: Ker Than

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