Graphene is a carbon allotrope consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice.
In his book, “The Fourth Industrial Revolution”, Klaus Schwab (Founder and Executive Chairman, World Economic Forum) identifies the paradigm shift to engineered materials as being a key innovation of Industry 4.0. “With attributes that seemed unimaginable a few years ago, new materials are coming to market. Overall, they are lighter, stronger, recyclable and adaptive. When graphene becomes price competitive, it could significantly disrupt the manufacturing and infrastructure industries.”
 Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2007) Nature Materials, 6: 183-191
 Yang, X.; Yu, X.; Liu, X. Obtaining a Sustainable Competitive Advantage from Patent Information: A Patent Analysis of the Graphene Industry. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4800.
 Schwab, K., “The Fourth Industrial Revolution”, 2017, London, United Kingdom: Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 1-192.